Kubernetes / 运维笔记

Kubernetes 集群灾备环境部署

Einic Yeo · 8月20日 · 2020年 · ·

etcd是kubernetes集群极为重要的一块服务,存储了kubernetes集群所有的数据信息,如Namespace、Pod、Service、路由等状态信息。如果etcd集群发生灾难或者 etcd 集群数据丢失,都会影响k8s集群数据的恢复。因此,通过备份etcd数据来实现kubernetes集群的灾备环境十分重要。

一、etcd集群备份

etcd不同版本的 etcdctl 命令不一样,但大致差不多,这里备份使用 napshot save进行快照备份。需要注意几点:

  • 备份操作在etcd集群的其中一个节点执行就可以。
  • 这里使用的是etcd v3的api,因为从 k8s 1.13 开始,k8s不再支持 v2 版本的 etcd,即k8s的集群数据都存在了v3版本的etcd中。故备份的数据也只备份了使用v3添加的etcd数据,v2添加的etcd数据是没有做备份的。
  • 本案例使用的是二进制部署的k8s v1.18.6 + Calico 容器环境(下面命令中的”ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl” 等同于 “etcdctl&版权声明:本文遵循 CC 4.0 BY-SA 版权协议,若要转载请务必附上原文出处链接及本声明,谢谢合作!#8221;)

1)开始备份之前,先来查看下etcd数据

etcd 数据目录
[[email protected] ~]# cat /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh |grep "ETCD_DATA_DIR="
export ETCD_DATA_DIR="/data/k8s/etcd/data"
      
etcd WAL 目录
[[email protected] ~]# cat /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh |grep "ETCD_WAL_DIR="
export ETCD_WAL_DIR="/data/k8s/etcd/wal"
 
[[email protected] ~]# ls /data/k8s/etcd/data/
member
[[email protected] ~]# ls /data/k8s/etcd/data/member/
snap
[[email protected] ~]# ls /data/k8s/etcd/wal/
0000000000000000-0000000000000000.wal  0.tmp

2)执行etcd集群数据备份

在etcd集群的其中一个节点执行备份操作,然后将备份文件拷贝到其他节点上。

先在etcd集群的每个节点上创建备份目录

# mkdir -p /data/etcd_backup_dir

在etcd集群其中个一个节点(这里在k8s-master01)上执行备份:

[[email protected] ~]# ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl --cacert=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem --cert=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem --key=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem --endpoints=https://172.16.60.231:2379 snapshot save /data/etcd_backup_dir/etcd-snapshot-`date +%Y%m%d`.db

将备份文件拷贝到其他的etcd节点

[[email protected] ~]# rsync -e "ssh -p22" -avpgolr /data/etcd_backup_dir/etcd-snapshot-20200820.db [email protected]:/data/etcd_backup_dir/
[[email protected] ~]# rsync -e "ssh -p22" -avpgolr /data/etcd_backup_dir/etcd-snapshot-20200820.db [email protected]:/data/etcd_backup_dir/

可以将上面k8s-master01节点的etcd备份命令放在脚本里,结合crontab进行定时备份:

[[email protected] ~]# cat /data/etcd_backup_dir/etcd_backup.sh
#!/usr/bin/bash
 
date;
CACERT="/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem"
CERT="/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem"
EKY="/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem"
ENDPOINTS="172.16.60.231:2379"
 
ETCDCTL_API=3 /opt/k8s/bin/etcdctl \
--cacert="${CACERT}" --cert="${CERT}" --key="${EKY}" \
--endpoints=${ENDPOINTS} \
snapshot save /data/etcd_backup_dir/etcd-snapshot-`date +%Y%m%d`.db
 
# 备份保留30天
find /data/etcd_backup_dir/ -name "*.db" -mtime +30 -exec rm -f {} \;
 
# 同步到其他两个etcd节点
/bin/rsync -e "ssh -p5522" -avpgolr --delete /data/etcd_backup_dir/ [email protected]:/data/etcd_backup_dir/
/bin/rsync -e "ssh -p5522" -avpgolr --delete /data/etcd_backup_dir/ [email protected]:/data/etcd_backup_dir/

设置crontab定时备份任务,每天凌晨5点执行备份:

[[email protected] ~]# chmod 755 /data/etcd_backup_dir/etcd_backup.sh
[[email protected] ~]# crontab -l
#etcd集群数据备份
0 5 * * * /bin/bash -x /data/etcd_backup_dir/etcd_backup.sh > /dev/null 2>&1

二、etcd集群恢复

etcd集群备份操作只需要在其中的一个etcd节点上完成,然后将备份文件拷贝到其他节点。
但etcd集群恢复操作必须要所有的etcd节点上完成!

1)模拟etcd集群数据版权声明:本文遵循 CC 4.0 BY-SA 版权协议,若要转载请务必附上原文出处链接及本声明,谢谢合作!丢失
删除三个etcd集群节点的data数据 (或者直接删除data目录)

# rm -rf /data/k8s/etcd/data/*

查看k8s集群状态:

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS      MESSAGE                                                                                           ERROR
etcd-2               Unhealthy   Get https://172.16.60.233:2379/health: dial tcp 172.16.60.233:2379: connect: connection refused
etcd-1               Unhealthy   Get https://172.16.60.232:2379/health: dial tcp 172.16.60.232:2379: connect: connection refused
etcd-0               Unhealthy   Get https://172.16.60.231:2379/health: dial tcp 172.16.60.231:2379: connect: connection refused
scheduler            Healthy     ok
controller-manager   Healthy     ok

由于此时etcd集群的三个节点服务还在,过一会儿查看集群状态恢复正常:

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
controller-manager   Healthy   ok
scheduler            Healthy   ok
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true"}
etcd-2               Healthy   {"health":"true"}
etcd-1               Healthy   {"health":"true"}
 
[[email protected] ~]# ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl --endpoints="https://172.16.60.231:2379,https://172.16.60.232:2379,https://172.16.60.233:2379" --cert=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem --key=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem --cacert=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem endpoint health
https://172.16.60.231:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 9.918673ms
https://172.16.60.233:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 10.985279ms
https://172.16.60.232:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 13.422545ms
 
[[email protected] ~]# ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl --endpoints="https://172.16.60.231:2379,https://172.16.60.232:2379,https://172.16.60.233:2379" --cert=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem --key=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem --cacert=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem member list --write-out=table
+------------------+---------+------------+----------------------------+----------------------------+------------+
|        ID        | STATUS  |    NAME    |         PEER ADDRS         |        CLIENT ADDRS        | IS LEARNER |
+------------------+---------+------------+----------------------------+----------------------------+------------+
| 1d1d7edbba38c293 | started | k8s-etcd03 | https://172.16.60.233:2380 | https://172.16.60.233:2379 |      false |
| 4c0cfad24e92e45f | started | k8s-etcd02 | https://172.16.60.232:2380 | https://172.16.60.232:2379 |      false |
| 79cf4f0a8c3da54b | started | k8s-etcd01 | https://172.16.60.231:2380 | https://172.16.60.231:2379 |      false |
+------------------+---------+------------+----------------------------+----------------------------+------------+

如上发现,etcd集群三个节点的leader都是false,即没有选主。此时需要重启三个节点的etcd服务:

# systemctl restart etcd

重启后,再次查看发现et版权声明:本文遵循 CC 4.0 BY-SA 版权协议,若要转载请务必附上原文出处链接及本声明,谢谢合作!cd集群已经选主成功,集群状态正常!

版权声明:本文遵循 CC 4.0 BY-SA 版权协议,若要转载请务必附上原文出处链接及本声明,谢谢合作!
[[email protected] ~]# ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl -w table --cacert=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem   --cert=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem   --key=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem   --endpoints="https://172.16.60.231:2379,https://172.16.60.232:2379,https://172.16.60.233:2379" endpoint status
+----------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+
|          ENDPOINT          |        ID        | VERSION | DB SIZE | IS LEADER | IS LEARNER | RAFT TERM | RAFT INDEX | RAFT APPLIED INDEX | ERRORS |
+----------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+
| https://172.16.60.231:2379 | 79cf4f0a8c3da54b |   3.4.9 |  1.6 MB |      true |      false |         5 |      24658 |              24658 |        |
| https://172.16.60.232:2379 | 4c0cfad24e92e45f |   3.4.9 |  1.6 MB |     false |      false |         5 |      24658 |              24658 |        |
| https://172.16.60.233:2379 | 1d1d7edbba38c293 |   3.4.9 |  1.7 MB |     false |      false |         5 |      24658 |              24658 |        |
+----------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+

但是,k8s集群数据其实已经丢失了。namespace命名空间下的pod等资源都没有了。此时就需要通过etcd集群备份文件来恢复,即通过上面的etcd集群快照文件恢复。

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get ns
NAME              STATUS   AGE
default           Active   9m47s
kube-node-lease   Active   9m39s
kube-public       Active   9m39s
kube-system       Active   9m47s
[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system
No resources found in kube-system namespace.
[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
No resources found

2)etcd集群数据恢复,即kubernetes集群数据恢复

在etcd数据恢复之前,先依次关闭所有master节点的kube-aposerver服务,所有etcd节点的etcd服务:

# systemctl stop kube-apiserver
# systemctl stop etcd

特别注意:在进行etcd集群数据恢复之前,一定要先将所有etcd节点的data和wal旧工作目录删掉,这里指的是/data/k8s/etcd/data文件夹跟/data/k8s/etcd/wal文件夹,可能会导致恢复失败(恢复命令执行时报错数据目录已存在)。

# rm -rf /data/k8s/etcd/data && rm -rf /data/k8s/etcd/wal

在每个etcd节点执行恢复操作:

172.16.60.231节点
-------------------------------------------------------
ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl \
--name=k8s-etcd01 \
--endpoints="https://172.16.60.231:2379" \
--cert=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem \
--key=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem \
--cacert=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem \
--initial-cluster-token=etcd-cluster-0 \
--initial-advertise-peer-urls=https://172.16.60.231:2380 \
--initial-cluster=k8s-etcd01=https://172.16.60.231:2380,k8s-etcd02=https://172.16.60.232:2380,k8s-etcd03=https://192.168.137.233:2380 \
--data-dir=/data/k8s/etcd/data \
--wal-dir=/data/k8s/etcd/wal \
snapshot restore /data/etcd_backup_dir/etcd-snapshot-20200820.db
 
 
172.16.60.232节点
-------------------------------------------------------
ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl \
--name=k8s-etcd02 \
--endpoints="https://172.16.60.232:2379" \
--cert=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem \
--key=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem \
--cacert=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem \
--initial-cluster-token=etcd-cluster-0 \
--initial-advertise-peer-urls=https://172.16.60.232:2380 \
--initial-cluster=k8s-etcd01=https://172.16.60.231:2380,k8s-etcd02=https://172.16.60.232:2380,k8s-etcd03=https://192.168.137.233:2380 \
--data-dir=/data/k8s/etcd/data \
--wal-dir=/data/k8s/etcd/wal \
snapshot restore /data/etcd_backup_dir/etcd-snapshot-20200820.db
 
 
192.168.137.233节点
-------------------------------------------------------
ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl \
--name=k8s-etcd03 \
--endpoints="https://192.168.137.233:2379" \
--cert=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem \
--key=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem \
--cacert=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem \
--initial-cluster-token=etcd-cluster-0 \
--initial-advertise-peer-urls=https://192.168.137.233:2380 \
--initial-cluster=k8s-etcd01=https://172.16.60.231:2380,k8s-etcd02=https://172.16.60.232:2380,k8s-etcd03=https://192.168.137.233:2380 \
--data-dir=/data/k8s/etcd/data \
--wal-dir=/data/k8s/etcd/wal \
snapshot restore /data/etcd_backup_dir/etcd-snapshot-20200820.db

依次启动所有etcd节点的etcd服务:

# systemctl start etcd
# systemctl status etcd

检查 ETCD 集群状态(如下,发现etcd集群里已经成功选主了)

[[email protected] ~]# ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl --endpoints="https://172.16.60.231:2379,https://172.16.60.232:2379,https://172.16.60.233:2379" --cert=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem --key=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem --cacert=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem endpoint health
https://172.16.60.232:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 12.837393ms
https://172.16.60.233:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 13.306671ms
https://172.16.60.231:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 13.602805ms
 
[[email protected] ~]# ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl -w table --cacert=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem   --cert=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem   --key=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem   --endpoints="https://172.16.60.231:2379,https://172.16.60.232:2379,https://172.16.60.233:2379" endpoint status
+----------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+
|          ENDPOINT          |        ID        | VERSION | DB SIZE | IS LEADER | IS LEARNER | RAFT TERM | RAFT INDEX | RAFT APPLIED INDEX | ERRORS |
+----------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+
| https://172.16.60.231:2379 | 79cf4f0a8c3da54b |   3.4.9 |  9.0 MB |     false |      false |         2 |         13 |                 13 |        |
| https://172.16.60.232:2379 | 4c0cfad24e92e45f |   3.4.9 |  9.0 MB |      true |      false |         2 |         13 |                 13 |        |
| https://172.16.60.233:2379 | 5f70664d346a6ebd |   3.4.9 |  9.0 MB |     false |      false |         2 |         13 |                 13 |        |
+----------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+

再依次启动所有master节点的kube-apiserver服务:

# systemctl start kube-apiserver
# systemctl status kube-apiserver

查看kubernetes集群状态:

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS      MESSAGE                                  ERROR
controller-manager   Healthy     ok
scheduler            Healthy     ok
etcd-2               Unhealthy   HTTP probe failed with statuscode: 503
etcd-1               Unhealthy   HTTP probe failed with statuscode: 503
etcd-0               Unhealthy   HTTP probe failed with statuscode: 503
 
由于etcd服务刚重启,需要多刷几次状态就会正常:
[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
controller-manager   Healthy   ok
scheduler            Healthy   ok
etcd-2               Healthy   {"health":"true"}
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true"}
etcd-1               Healthy   {"health":"true"}

查看kuberne版权声明:本文遵循 CC 4.0 BY-SA 版权协议,若要转载请务必附上原文出处链接及本声明,谢谢合作!tes的资源情况:

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get ns
NAME              STATUS   AGE
default           Active   7d4h
kevin             Active   5d18h
kube-node-lease   Active   7d4h
kube-public       Active   7d4h
kube-system       Active   7d4h
 
[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE     NAME                                       READY   STATUS              RESTARTS   AGE
default       dnsutils-ds-22q87                          0/1     ContainerCreating   171        7d3h
default       dnsutils-ds-bp8tm                          0/1     ContainerCreating   138        5d18h
default       dnsutils-ds-bzzqg                          0/1     ContainerCreating   138        5d18h
default       dnsutils-ds-jcvng                          1/1     Running             171        7d3h
default       dnsutils-ds-xrl2x                          0/1     ContainerCreating   138        5d18h
default       dnsutils-ds-zjg5l                          1/1     Running             0          7d3h
default       kevin-t-84cdd49d65-ck47f                   0/1     ContainerCreating   0          2d2h
default       nginx-ds-98rm2                             1/1     Running             2          7d3h
default       nginx-ds-bbx68                             1/1     Running             0          7d3h
default       nginx-ds-kfctv                             0/1     ContainerCreating   1          5d18h
default       nginx-ds-mdcd9                             0/1     ContainerCreating   1          5d18h
default       nginx-ds-ngqcm                             1/1     Running             0          7d3h
default       nginx-ds-tpcxs                             0/1     ContainerCreating   1          5d18h
kevin         nginx-ingress-controller-797ffb479-vrq6w   0/1     ContainerCreating   0          5d18h
kevin         test-nginx-7d4f96b486-qd4fl                0/1     ContainerCreating   0          2d1h
kevin         test-nginx-7d4f96b486-qfddd                0/1     Running             0          2d1h
kube-system   calico-kube-controllers-578894d4cd-9rp4c   1/1     Running             1          7d3h
kube-system   calico-node-d7wq8                          0/1     PodInitializing     1          7d3h

在etcd集群数据恢复后,pod容器也会慢慢恢复到running状态。至此,kubernetes整个集群已经通过etcd备份数据恢复了。

三、最后总结

Kubernetes 集群备份主要是备份 ETCD 集群。而恢复时,主要考虑恢复整个顺序:

停止kube-apiserver –> 停止ETCD –> 恢复数据 –> 启动ETCD –> 启动kube-apiserve特别注意:

  • 备份ETCD集群时,只需要备份一个ETCD数据,然后同步到其他节点上。
  • 恢复ETCD数据时,拿其中一个节点的备份数据恢复即可。
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